středa 22. února 2012

Pierre Gaultier de Varennes de la Vérendrye

P.G. de Varennes and his sons were not only weighing traders, explorers but also in North America. On the "my account" you credited for the discovery of lakes, rivers or mountains. They've also formed a large settlement.
VARENNES de la Pierre Gaultier de VÉRENDRYE (* 17 11th 1685, Trois Rivières, Canada, † 5th 12th 1749, Montreal, Canada) - French businessman, explorer of North America
At the beginning of the 18th century took place in the North America competitive struggle between the English Hudson's Bay Company managed and French fur traders. In this atmosphere in 1730 gave the French king Louis XV. Pierre de Varennes La Vérendrye, who previously bought furs in the river Wed Maurice (a tributary of the St. Lawrence River), the monopoly right to trade furs for the Lake Superior and Lake Nipigon. One of the conditions was another search connector Atlantic and Pacific Ocean.Discovery of Lake Winnipeg
With financial help traders left Montreal in Varennes and the Great Lakes region since 1731, he, or his sons, Jean Baptiste (1713-1736), Pierre ml. (1714-1755), François (1715-1794) and Louis Joseph (1717-1794) and nephew Christophe de Dufreau Gemer, published a survey on the central region of Canada. Varennes-father used the letters patent and founded the fortified settlement Rainy Lake Saint Pierre and Forest Lake (Lake of the Woods) Fort Saint Charles, which became the basis for further travel. Varennesové when they discovered Lake Winnipeg and Nelson River, which flows from it and head west to Hudson Bay.
While Father Varennes devoted mainly trade, sending their kids younger family branched search for "West River", which talked about the Indians. Between 1734-35 and traveled by Jean Baptiste Pierre ml. along with de la Gemerym along the southern edge of Lake Winnipeg to the River Red River, where they established Fort Maurepas (in its defense against the Sioux fell Varennes Jean Baptiste).
Varennes Oldest first went north and discovered Lake Manitoba and Winnipegosis in September 1738 and went on to Red River, where the French base was further penetration into the Missouri basin. Valley Assinoboine and get Pierre Souris ml. and Louis-Joseph Varennesové in the Mandan, but did not find the river heading west. Varennesové in the spring of 1739 approached the northern shore of Lake Winnipeg and thence to Cedar Lake and the lower flow of Saskatchewan. Fort Bourbon, which was founded on its shore, served by French efforts to prevent further action in the English west of Canada.
The youngest Varennesové François and Louis-Joseph in May 1742 and came to Mandanům them went to the southwest. Abandoned by their guides wandering prairie, until they reached the ends between the rivers Little Missouri and Cheyenne. The next procedure appeared Hills Black Hills and Big Horn. Cheyenne River continued to its confluence with the Missouri and upstream of the mighty river approached the village at the Assiniboine River.
Canada under the rule of the British Empire
Find the path to the "Western Sea" is released in 1749 by Louis Joseph Varennes. He chose the Saskatchewan River, came to places where they run down North and South Saskatchewan, but did not penetrate to the ocean. Varennesové completed the survey in its broad outlines of a complex of rivers and lakes central Canada. Significantly expanded the territory was called New France. Seven Years War, which took place on the American continent in the years 1756-63 as a conflict between France and England, has changed the balance of forces to the end, Canada has become part of the British Empire.

Eusebio Francisco Kühn

Namesake city in Mexico and the mountains in California, Eusebio Francisco Kuhn, came to America as a missionary.

KÜHN Eusebio Francisco (including EF Kino) (* 10 8th 1645, at Trent Segno, Italy, † 3rd 15th 1711, the mission Magdalena, Sonora, Mexico) - Austrian Jesuit missionary

In the New World began to operate the Jesuits in 1549, when the first missionaries of the Society of Jesus spoke on the Brazilian shore. The New Spain (Mexico) joined in September 1572 and worked there until the termination of members of this order in June 1767th For members of the Order was nešpanělské missionary work in America long closed, opened in November 1664th

End of the 90 the 17th century mission managed by the Northwest Mexico Eusebio Francisco Kuhn, from Trentino (about his nationality is disputed). During the Christianization of New Spain worked with him members of the Czech province of the Society of Maximilian Amarell and Adam Gilg-Jilek, a native of Rýmařov. Gilg-ryegrass Kuhn also took part in the expedition 1698-99, toured the area of ​​Sonora in northwest Mexico to the Gila River. Kuhn then penetrated to the mouth of the Colorado and continued his travels Lower California (1700) to the Pacific. From there he returned to his mission on the eastern shore of Gulf of California. He is credited with the observation that Lower California is an island but a peninsula. Cinema and the town bears the name of the bay in the Mexican state of Sonora and the flat mountain (1307 m) in California, but also one of California

Louis Joliett

Great Lakes and the surrounding river canoeing Brázdil Jesuit missionary Joliett. He even discovered the waterway from the St. Lawrence River, across the Great Lakes to the Mississippi and its up to the Gulf of Mexico.
JOLIETT Louis (including Joliet) (* 21 9th 1645, Quebec, Canada, † between 5th and 4th 9th 15th 1700, one of the islands in the St. Lawrence River, Canada) - French Jesuit missionary and fur trader
Power interests in North America, France, which threatened the English competition, represented by the Hudson's Bay Company (founded 1670), supported in the 70 the 17th century Jesuits. On the shore of Lake Superior, and mission established by its founder Jean Claude Allouez in 1670 then went to the river Wisconsin. Another Jesuit nodal point routes in search of "The Great Water" (ie the river heading to the Pacific Ocean), which talked about the Indians, became a missionary station Sault Wed Marie rapids in the strait connecting Lake Huron and Horejsi.

Jesuit on the water
From there came out in 1673 Joliett Louis, a member of the Society of Jesus, however, which focused primarily on the fur trade, which acquired from the Indians. He was probably the first European who sailed the canoe from Lake Superior all over Ontario (1668-1669). Accompanied by his companion of the Order of Jacques Marquetta wanted to find a "Western power", ie the channel between the Atlantic Ocean and the Pacific. They went on their journey from the station on Lake Michigan Michitimackinac Jesuit mission in Green Bay.
Wisconsin continued upstream to the upper flow of the Mississippi, which they called the river Colbert. Sailed to its confluence with the Missouri, and Arkansas to Ohio and convinced that the powerful still the stream heading to the south, the territory controlled by the Spaniards. Therefore returned back into the mouth of the Illinois River, and after this returned in the fall of 1673 to Lake Michigan. Way and J. L. Jolietta Marquetta finished exploring the waterways of the St. Lawrence River, across the Great Lakes and the Mississippi to the Gulf of Mexico.
From Lake Michigan Joliett L. transferred his interests to Quebec and explored the mouth of the St. Lawrence River. In 1679 he went up the river Saguenay, he would like the Jesuit Charles Albanel (1616-1696) in 1671 used to travel to Hudson Bay. Just got to Lake Mistassini and later went on to explore the coast of Labrador (by 56 ° 11 'north latitude).

Martin Spanberg - Member of the Kamchatka expedition

M. Spansberg Russian flag was supposed to find new ways to the New World. During the search for this journey to explore the area managed Kamčatského peninsula, the Japanese island of Honshu and Kurile Islands map.
SPANBERG Martin († 1761) - Danish sailor in the Russian service
Shortly before he died, Tsar Peter I issued instructions for the expedition, which, according to the ideas of German philosopher GWF Leibniz to find a new way to America. In one of the representatives of V. Bering Danish sailor named Martin Spanberga. At the end of January and February 1725 drove Bering expedition from St. Petersburg and the rivers and permeable hard to move in June 1726 came to Yakutia.
The history of the Danish sailor Spanberg wrote a very austere relationship to other participants and raw approach to the inhabitants of areas in which expedition passed through. Bering gave him the hardest part of the freight roads impassable and unexplored from Yakutsk to the sea. On the boats and tried to slide into the Okhotsk transport material for building ships. At the end of January 1727 came to the sea forty sled (from hundreds of original), but their way vroubil poztrácený material and dozens of dead and Jakutů Tunguzů accompanying dog team from the river Judomy.A survey of Kamchatka
Under the command of Spanbergovým crossed in July 1727 a small ship Fortuna from Okhotsk to Kamchatka and anchored in the Bolshaya River estuary on the west coast of the peninsula. Spanberg with only two boat trips transported to Bolšorecka most difficult and severe frosts in Kamchatka on his way across the east coast to the mouth of the river.
In July 1728 launched a Russian expedition ship at sea and St. Gabriel Spanberg participated in a voyage along the coast of Siberia in the north to the Arctic Sea. Bering expedition, however, found no way to America and found not even know how far they are from the Far East shores of the New World. Dissatisfied because the Admiralty sent again in the spring of 1734 Bering to the Far East, and with him went to Siberia complex paths again and Spanberg Martin as his assistant. In the summer of 1735 arrived with a cargo from there to the Yakutsk and proceeded to Okhotsk.
Compared with passive Bering, who remained three years in Yakutsk, Spanberg directly spender energy. In the Okhotsk built two smaller ships (the Archangel Michael and Nadezhda) and corrected St. Gabriel. In June 1738 he sailed with them to Bolšorecka in Kamchatka and went on to Japan. Recorded in the map series Kuril Islands, but the lack of food forced him to return. Wintered in Kamchatka in May 1738 again went to the south. 16th June first saw the shores of Japan's Honshu Island, but did not dare to land on its shores, and having dealt with some representatives of the Japanese authorities. In mid-August, the ship returned to Spanbergovy Bolšorecka and continued into the Okhotsk.Solid defense of the Japanese ...
Separately issued to Japan ship Nadezhda under the command of Lieutenant William Walton († 1743). Penetrated further south than the other two Russian ship. The commander sent to the island of Honshu boat with several seamen, who briefly went through the Japanese settlement. Soon, however, many Japanese boats with armed men surrounded the Nadezhda and Walton decided to return to Okhotsk (22 8th 1739). Explored and recorded the way the map of the coast of Okhotsk Sea (between the mouth of rivers and Inje Ulje). After sailing the Bering returned to American shores, became leader of the expedition Spanberg that continued mapping the Pacific coast of the Far East.

Anthony Henday - Traveler

The bad reputation in Europe led Hendaye to America, where he became an agent of Hudson's Bay Company. Under her name traveled into the interior of Canada. Even in America, but did not enjoy a good reputation.

Anthony Henday (* around 1730, the Isle of Wight, England, † after 1762, England?) - Hudson's Bay Company agent, a Canadian traveler inland

It was only after decades that have passed since H. Kelseye ways, the English, represented the North American Society of Hudson Bay in the mid-18th century again perceived business opportunities in western regions of Canada. Sometime in the mid-18th century arrived in Canada, Anthony Henday, podloudnická whose activity was certainly good reason to leave Europe.

For a while he settled at Fort York in Hudson Bay and from there he went 26th June 1754 up the Hayes River to Oxford and Cross lakes, which flows through the river Nelson. On the advice Indian guides to the southwest began to flow to the lower Saskatchewan (22 7) and the fortified village of The Pas, by the French backwoodsmen. From there he continued with his Indian guides in the tributaries of Saskatchewan (Carrot and Red Deer) up to the foothills of the Rocky Mountains, which until then none of the Europeans did not arrive. He spent the winter among the Siksika, which, in black moccasins called "Blackfoot." With a rich catch of fur in April 1755 after returning to Fort Saskatchewan, York, where he arrived in June 1755th

For further Hendayových fate we know little. The London Company's administrators feel no need to continue the systematic penetration of the prairies and mountains of the American West. Increased distrust of Hendaye constant disputes with his captains and sailors of English merchant ships. Former smuggler remained a man of ill repute.